List of publications

Below is a list of my publications with links to PDFs and abstracts. Please note that the full paper PDFs are provided as a professional courtesy to readers; the copyrights remain with the copyright holders as indicated in each paper.

Forthcoming/published  articles

Schilke, Oliver, & Fabrice Lumineau. Forthcoming. "The double-edged effect of contracts on alliance performance." Journal of Management. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
Despite substantial scholarly interest in the role of contracts in alliances, few studies have analyzed the mechanisms and conditions relevant to their influence on alliance performance. In this paper, we build on the information-processing view of the firm to study contracts as framing devices. We suggest that the effects of contracts depend on the types of provisions included and differentiate between the consequences of control and coordination provisions. Specifically, control provisions will increase the level of conflict between alliance partners whereas coordination provisions will decrease such conflict. Conflict, in turn, reduces alliance performance, suggesting a mediated relationship between alliance contracts and performance. We also contribute to a better understanding of contextual influences on the consequences of contracts and investigate the interactions of each contractual function with both internal and external uncertainties. Key informant survey data on 171 alliances largely support our conceptual model.


Reimann, Martin, Oliver Schilke, & Karen Cook. 2017. "Trust is heritable, whereas distrust is not." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(27):7007-7012. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
Why do people distrust others in social exchange? To what degree, if at all, is distrust subject to genetic influences, and thus possibly heritable, and to what degree is it nurtured by families and immediate peers who encourage young people to be vigilant and suspicious of others? Answering these questions could provide fundamental clues about the sources of individual differences in the disposition to distrust, including how they may differ from the sources of individual differences in the disposition to trust. In this article, we report the results of a study of monozygotic and dizygotic female twins who were asked to decide either how much of a counterpart player’s monetary endowment they wanted to take from their counterpart (i.e., distrust) or how much of their own monetary endowment they wanted to send to their counterpart (i.e., trust). Our results demonstrate that although the disposition to trust is explained to some extent by heritability but not by shared socialization, the disposition to distrust is explained by shared socialization but not by heritability. The sources of distrust are therefore distinct from the sources of trust in many ways.


Schilke, Oliver, Gunnar Wiedenfels, Malte Brettel, & Lynne G. Zucker. 2017. "Interorganizational trust production contingent on product and performance uncertainty." Socio-Economic Review, 15(2):307-330. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
How do organizations build trust under varying degrees of uncertainty? In this article, we propose that different degrees of uncertainty require different bases of trust. We distinguish between three different forms of trust production (process-based, characteristics-based, and institution-based) and develop hypotheses regarding their relative effectiveness under low versus high levels of product and performance uncertainty. Using survey data on 392 interorganizational buyer-seller relationships, we find support for our position that a high degree of uncertainty favors process-based trust production, whereas characteristics-based trust production is relatively more effective when uncertainty is low. The effectiveness of institution-based trust production is not significantly affected by uncertainty. We derive implications for organizational trust production under different degrees of uncertainty, which should encourage new research on trust.


Schilke, Oliver, Martin Reimann, & Karen S. Cook. 2016. "Reply to Wu and Wilkes: power, whether situational or durable, decreases both relational and generalized trust." Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 113(11), E1418. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
In our article "Power decreases trust in social exchange," we present evidence that individuals low in power are more trusting than those high in power. In a letter to the editor, Wu and Wilkes argue that our finding is “subject to two caveats about the kind of power and trust being considered.” Although refinements of our theory are welcome, we have reservations about the caveats brought forward.


Schilke, Oliver, Martin Reimann, & Karen S. Cook. 2015. "Power decreases trust in social exchange." Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 112(42), 12950-12955. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
How does lacking versus possessing power in a social exchange affect people’s trust in their exchange partner? An answer to this question could have broad implications for a number of exchange settings in which dependence and uncertainty play an important role. Here, we report on a series of experiments in which we manipulated participants’ power position in terms of structural dependence and observed their trust perceptions and behaviors. Over a wide variety of different experimental paradigms and measures, we find that more powerful actors place less trust in others than less powerful actors do. Our results contradict predictions by rational actor models, which assume that low-power individuals are able to anticipate that a more powerful exchange partner will place little value on the relationship with them, thus tends to behave opportunistically, and consequently cannot be trusted. On the other hand, our results support predictions by motivated cognition theory, which posits that low-power individuals want their exchange partner to be trustworthy and then act according to that desire. Mediation analyses show that, consistent with the motivated cognition account, having low power increases individuals’ hope and, in turn, their perceptions of their exchange partners’ benevolence, which ultimately leads them to trust their exchange partner.


Schilke, Oliver, & Karen S. Cook. 2015. "Sources of alliance partner trustworthiness: integrating calculative and relational perspectives." Strategic Management Journal, 36 (2), 276–297. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
Research on the sources of organizational trustworthiness remains bifurcated. Some scholars have adopted a calculative perspective, stressing the primacy of actors’ rational calculations, while others have approached trustworthiness from a relational perspective, focusing on its social underpinnings. We help to reconcile these seemingly disparate views by adopting an integrative approach that allows us to clarify the boundaries of both perspectives. Based on dyadic survey data from 171 strategic alliances, we find that the calculative perspective (represented by contractual safeguards) has higher predictive power when the partner lacks a favorable reputation. In contrast, the relational perspective (represented by organizational culture) predicts trustworthiness more strongly when familiarity with the partner organization is high.


Schilke, Oliver. 2014. "Second-order dynamic capabilities: how do they matter?" Academy of Management Perspectives, 28(4), 368-380. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
Similar to the fairly well-established distinction between substantive capabilities and dynamic capabilities, a further distinction can be made between first-order dynamic capabilities (which have been the subject of much interest and debate over the last two decades) and second-order dynamic capabilities (which have received considerably less attention thus far). Based on a large-scale survey study in the context of strategic alliances, this paper empirically examines second-order dynamic capabilities in two ways. First, I find that, for the most part, the performance effect of second-order dynamic capabilities is indirect and mediated by first-order dynamic capabilities. Second, results show a negative interaction between first- and second-order dynamic capabilities, suggesting that they function as substitutes in affecting performance outcomes. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the interplay between levels of the dynamic capabilities hierarchy.


Rossman, Gabriel, & Oliver Schilke. 2014. "Close, but no cigar: the bimodal rewards to prize-seeking." American Sociological Review, 79(1), 86-108. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
This article examines the economic effects of prizes with implications for the diversity of market positions, especially in cultural fields. Many prizes have three notable features that together yield an emergent reward structure: (1) consumers treat prizes as judgment devices when making purchase decisions, (2) prizes introduce sharp discontinuities between winners and also-rans, and (3) appealing to prize juries requires costly sacrifices of mass audience appeal. When all three of these conditions obtain, winning a prize is valuable, but seeking it is costly, so trying and failing yields the worst outcome—a logic we characterize as a Tullock lottery. We test the model with analyses of Oscar nominations and Hollywood films from 1985-2009.  We create an innovative measure of prize-seeking, or “Oscar appeal,” on the basis of similarity to recent nominees in terms of such things as genre, plot keywords, and release date. We then show that Oscar appeal has no effect on profitability. However, this zero-order relationship conceals that returns to strong Oscar appeals are bimodal, with super-normal returns for nominees and large losses for snubs. We then argue that the effect of judgment devices on fields depends on how they structure and refract information.


Schilke, Oliver. 2014. "On the contingent value of dynamic capabilities for competitive advantage: the nonlinear moderating effect of environmental dynamism." Strategic Management Journal, 35(2), 179-203. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
This article suggests that dynamic capabilities can give the firm competitive advantage, but this effect is contingent on the level of dynamism of the firm’s external environment. A nonlinear, inverse U-shaped moderation is proposed, implying that the relationship between dynamic capabilities and competitive advantage is strongest under intermediate levels of dynamism but comparatively weaker when dynamism is low or high. This proposition is tested using data on alliance management capability and new product development capability, two specific dynamic capabilities widely recognized in prior research. Results based on longitudinal key informant data from 279 firms support the account that these dynamic capabilities are more strongly associated with competitive advantage in moderately dynamic than in stable or highly dynamic environments.


Schilke, Oliver, Martin Reimann, & Karen S. Cook. 2013. "Effect of relationship experience on trust recovery following a breach." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences110(38), 15236-15241. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
A violation of trust can have quite different consequences, depending on the nature of the relationship in which the trust breach occurs. In this article, we identify a key relationship characteristic that affects trust recovery: the extent of relationship experience before the trust breach. Across two experiments, this investigation establishes the behavioral effect that greater relationship experience before a trust breach fosters trust recovery. A neuroimaging experiment provides initial evidence that this behavioral effect is possible because of differential activation of two brain systems: while decision making after early trust breaches engages structures of a controlled social cognition system (C-system), specifically the anterior cingulate cortex and lateral frontal cortex, decision making after later trust breaches engages structures of an automatic social cognition system (X-system), specifically the lateral temporal cortex. The present findings make contributions to both social psychological theory and the neurophysiology of trust.


Schilke, Oliver, & Karen S. Cook. 2013. "A cross-level process theory of trust development in interorganizational relationships." Strategic Organization, 11(3), 281-303. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
Most research on trust in interorganizational relationships focuses on a single level of analysis, typically the individual or organizational level, and treats trust as a fairly static phenomenon. To stimulate more cross-level research, we propose a theoretical model that explains how trust in interorganizational relationships is related across various levels of analysis. At the same time, our model emphasizes the dynamic aspect of trust by examining how trust develops throughout consecutive relationship stages. Drawing from several programs of research, we identify the mechanisms that drive the progression of trust across levels as the interorganizational relationship unfolds. Starting with the boundary spanner as the key individual at the beginning of a new collaboration, we specify how trust gradually becomes part of the fabric of organizational action. By integrating micro and macro approaches over time, the proposed model contributes to a better understanding of how trust evolves in interorganizational relationships.


Kemper, Jan, Oliver Schilke, & Malte Brettel. 2013. "Social capital as a micro-level origin of organizational capabilities." Journal of Product Innovation Management, 30(3), 589-603. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
The microlevel concept of social capital has received significant attention in management and sociological research but has not yet been empirically associated with the development of organizational capabilities. The major purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship of social capital with marketing and research and development (R&D) capability and to explore how the environmental context moderates the social capital–organizational capability link. It is suggested that top management’s social capital provides a firm with important information and control benefits that facilitate effective access to the knowledge and resources necessary for building superior organizational capabilities. In addition, we identify the role of two important environmental factors influencing the social capital–organizational capability link: technological turbulence and competitive intensity. The strength of the relationship between social capital and organizational capabilities is proposed to vary depending on the level of these two environmental characteristics. This study conceptualizes and operationalizes social capital as a multidimensional construct reflected by the structural dimension of tie strength, the relational dimension of trust, and the cognitive dimension of solidarity. Survey and archival data on 280 firms from various industries are analyzed using structural equation modeling. Empirical support for the proposed three-dimensional structure of social capital is found. Results further indicate that social capital is a significant antecedent to both marketing and R&D capability, which in turn significantly affect firm performance. While a positive relationship between social capital and organizational capabilities is supported in general, the strength of this relationship depends on the environmental context the firm is embedded in. The positive effect of social capital on marketing capability increases in environments with high technological turbulence and competitive intensity; the opposite holds for R&D capability. This research contributes to the resource-based view by introducing social capital as an important microlevel factor promoting the development of organizational capabilities. By identifying and evaluating two important environmental contingencies, our study also decreases some of the ambiguity surrounding the effectiveness of antecedents to organizational capabilities. The findings further help practitioners decide under what circumstances investing in top-managers’ social capital provides an effective means for achieving superior performance through enhanced organizational capabilities.  This should have an important bearing on issues such as management training and incentives as well as on hiring policies.


Kemper, Jan, Oliver Schilke, Martin Reimann, Xuyi Wang, & Malte Brettel. 2013. "Competition-motivated corporate social responsibility." Journal of Business Research, 66(10): 1954-1963. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
Despite corporate social responsibility (CSR) having become a key strategy for firms to use in advancing on a sustainable path, the role of CSR for firm performance outcomes remains poorly understood. Thus, in a large empirical study across several industries and countries, we examined CSR as moderator of the relationship between marketing capabilities and firm performance. Our study also follows prior research that calls for an inclusion of competitive intensity as a boundary condition to this moderation effect. As hypothesized, three-way interactions among competitive intensity, CSR, and marketing capabilities had significant relationships with firm performance. For firms in industries with high competitive intensity, marketing capabilities have a stronger positive impact on performance when CSR is high versus low. This research sheds light on the interplay between CSR and marketing by showing that vigorously competing firms should use CSR as a major lever for increasing the impact of marketing on performance.


Schilke, Oliver, & Bernd W. Wirtz. 2012. "Consumer acceptance of service bundles: an empirical investigation in the context of broadband triple play." Information & Management, 49(2): 81-88. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
Although offering bundled services promises firms potential synergies in supply and increased revenues, the realized benefits of such a strategy are highly contingent on consumer acceptance of the bundles. Borrowing from TAM, Information Integration Theory, and the customer value concept, we developed a comprehensive model for consumer acceptance of service bundles, which is divided into four general construct types: service characteristics, usefulness/ease of use, attitude, and behavioral intention. Twelve hypotheses were derived and empirically tested in the context of broadband triple play, the bundled offering of broadband Internet access, Internet telephony, and Internet TV. Based on questionnaire responses from 214 study participants and using PLS for analysis, we found overall support for our research model. We concluded by discussing the academic and managerial value of our research, both in terms of advanced knowledge of service bundle acceptance and the adoption of triple play.


Homburg, Christian, Martin Klarmann, Martin Reimann, & Oliver Schilke. 2012. "What drives key informant accuracy?" Journal of Marketing Research, 49(4): 594-608. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
In an effort to establish and enhance key informants’ accuracy, organizational survey studies increasingly rely on triangulation techniques by including supplemental data sources that complement information acquired from key informants. Despite the growing popularity of triangulation, little guidance exists as to when and how it should be conducted. Addressing this gap, the authors develop hypotheses linking a comprehensive set of study characteristics at the construct, informant, organizational, and industry levels to key informant accuracy. Two studies test these hypotheses. The first study is a meta-analysis of triangulation applications. Using data from 127 studies published in six major marketing and management journals, the authors identify antecedents to key informant reliability. The second study, based on eight multi-informant datasets, analyzes antecedents to key informant validity. The results from these studies inform survey researchers as to which conditions particularly call for the use of triangulation. The paper concludes by offering guidelines on when and how to employ triangulation techniques.


Brettel, Malte, Andreas Engelen, Thomas Müller, & Oliver Schilke. 2011. "Distribution channel choice of new entrepreneurial ventures." Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(4): 683-708. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
This study provides a comprehensive analysis of distribution channel choices of new entrepreneurial ventures (NEVs). First, factors that influence NEVs' choice of distribution channels are examined. Second, performance consequences of those choices are investigated. A research model drawing from transaction cost economics as well as customer relationship and strategy literature is developed. Data collected from 330 NEVs are used to test the proposed model. The results show that the identified antecedents explain a large part of the variance in NEVs' channel choice. Moreover, NEVs that accomplish a fit between their distribution channel system and transaction cost-, product-, strategy-, and competition-related variables tend to perform better. Findings are discussed in light of the specific characteristics of NEVs.


Schilke, Oliver, & Anthony Goerzen. 2010. "Alliance management capability: an investigation of the construct and its measurement." Journal of Management, 36(5): 1192-1219. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
This research conceptualizes and operationalizes alliance management capability. The authors develop alliance management capability as a second-order construct to capture the degree to which organizations possess relevant management routines that enable them to effectively manage their portfolio of strategic alliances. In addition to identifying and measuring specific organizational routines as critical dimensions of alliance management capability, the authors advance knowledge on the performance effects of dedicated alliance structures and alliance experience based on survey data from 204 firms. Their primary contribution is a theoretically sound alliance management capability measure that is reflected by five underlying routines: interorganizational coordination, alliance portfolio coordination, interorganizational learning, alliance proactiveness, and alliance transformation. One of the key findings is that alliance management capability has a positive impact on alliance portfolio performance and mediates the performance effects of dedicated alliance structures and alliance experience.


Cook, Karen S., & Oliver Schilke. 2010. "The role of public, relational and organizational trust in economic affairs." Corporate Reputation Review, 13(2): 98-109. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
Trust, when established, contributes to the smooth running of political and economic systems which require the success of collective undertakings. Trust must be based on trustworthiness of the actors involved and the reliability of the institutions that are created to provide for the public good. Public trust is low when this is not the case. Even in the realm of business enterprises, market-based transactions, and the world of for-profit entities, trustworthiness and reliability build confidence in those who are the potential clients or consumers. In this paper, we discuss the role of trustworthiness in relations between physicians and their clients as one example of the role of public trust in professionals. We also discuss the role of trustworthiness in the realm of strategic alliances focusing on organizational culture and contractual safeguards as significant determinants of trust formation. We discuss the implications of this research and related work on the potential for increased trust at the relational, organizational and general societal levels in an ever-changing complex, global and interdependent world.


Wirtz, Bernd W., Oliver Schilke, & Sebastian Ullrich. 2010. "Strategic development of business models: implications of the Web 2.0 for creating value on the Internet." Long Range Planning, 43(2-3): 272-290. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
There is virtually a consensus that, to remain competitive, firms must continuously develop and adapt their business models. However, relatively little is known about how managers can go about achieving this transformation, and how, and to what extent, different types of business models should be adapted. To illustrate the differential effect of environmental changes on different business model types, this article draws from the ‘4C’ Internet business model typology to elaborate on how a recent wave of changes on the Internet – the emergent Web 2.0 phenomenon – is affecting each of its four business model types. We argue that Web 2.0 trends and characteristics are changing the rules of the ‘create and capture value’ game, and thus significantly disrupt the effectiveness of established Internet business models. Since systematic empirical knowledge about Web 2.0 factors is very limited, a comprehensive Web 2.0 framework is developed, which is illustrated with two cases and verified through in-depth interviews with Internet business managers. Strategic recommendations on how to what extent different Web 2.0 aspects affect each business model type are developed. Executives can use the ideas and frameworks presented in the article to benchmark their firm's efforts towards embracing the changes associated with the Web 2.0 into their business model.


Schierz, Paul G., Oliver Schilke, & Bernd W. Wirtz. 2010. "Understanding consumer acceptance of mobile payment services: an empirical analysis." Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 9(3): 209-216. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
Mobile technology has become increasingly common in today’s everyday life. However, mobile payment is surprisingly not among the frequently used mobile services, although technologically advanced solutions exist. Apparently, there is still a lack of acceptance of mobile payment services among consumers. The conceptual model developed and tested in this research thus focuses on factors determining consumers’ acceptance of mobile payment services. The empirical results show particularly strong support for the effects of compatibility, individual mobility, and subjective norm. Our study offers several implications for managers in regards to marketing mobile payment solutions to increase consumers’ intention to use these services.


Wirtz, Bernd W., Alexander Mathieu, & Oliver Schilke. 2007. "Strategy in high-velocity environments." Long Range Planning, 40(3): 295-313. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
While industries such as ICT and biotechnology have been characterized as high-velocity environments, in which demand, competition and technology are constantly changing, there has been little systematic empirical research focusing on the conceptualisation and operationalisation of strategy in such environments or its effect on performance. This article draws from industrial economics and the resource-based view to conceptualise strategy in high-velocity environments as a multi-dimensional construct. Additionally, the construct’s positive effect on business performance is empirically proven. The article closes with managerial implications and directions for further research. 


Dissertation research

Schilke, Oliver. "Causes and consequences of institutional practices in organizations: routines, trust, and identity." UCLA, Doctoral dissertation. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
The central thrust of my dissertation research is oriented around institutional practices in organizations—i.e., those processes that organizational decision makers take for granted and execute quasi-automatically. My goal is to better understand how such practices emerge and become habitualized over time, how they affect perceptions of the organizational environment, and how they influence organizational success. Specifically, I study institutional practices as they pertain to (1) routines, (2) trust, and (3) identity.


Work  in  progress

Schilke, Oliver. "A micro-institutional inquiry into resistance to environmental pressures." Academy of Management Journal, conditionally accepted. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
This paper contributes to the emerging stream of micro-institutional research, which zooms in on the internal organizational processes that are responsible for organizations’ differential responses to the external environment. Specifically, the investigation offers new knowledge of how organizational identity processes can shape whether decision makers will resist versus give in to environmental pressures. Building on the notion that organizational identity acts as a filter through which decision makers relate to the external environment, I develop the theoretical argument that strong organizational identification increases resistance to environmental pressures due to two mechanisms: (1) it bolsters the decision maker’s certainty and (2) it deflects the decision maker’s attention from the environment. A series of laboratory experiments not only test the mediated relationship between organizational identification and resistance to environmental pressures but also examine organizational status and organizational identity type as potential contingencies. The empirical results support the hypothesized positive link between organizational identification and resistance, which becomes particularly strong when organizational status is high (vs. low) and when the organizational identity is normative (vs. utilitarian). The findings reported here enrich institutional theory by adding micro-foundations to organizational practice-adoption decisions and shedding new light on relevant enabling conditions for agency and within-field heterogeneity.


Schilke, Oliver, Songcui Hu, & Constance Helfat. "Quo vadis, dynamic capabilities?” Academy of Management Annals, received 2nd revise & resubmit,. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
Although the dynamic capabilities perspective has become one of the most frequently used theoretical lenses in management research, critics have repeatedly voiced their frustration with this literature, particularly bemoaning the lack of empirical knowledge and the underspecification of the construct of dynamic capabilities. But research on dynamic capabilities has advanced considerably since its early years, in which most contributions to this literature were purely conceptual. A plethora of empirical studies as well as further theoretical elaborations have shed substantial light on a variety of specific, measurable factors connected to dynamic capabilities. Our article starts out by analyzing these studies to develop a meta-framework that specifies antecedents, dimensions, mechanisms, moderators, and outcomes of dynamic capabilities identified in the literature to date. This framework provides a comprehensive and systematic synthesis of the dynamic capabilities perspective that reflects the richness of the research while at the same time unifying it into a cohesive, overarching model. Such an analysis has not yet been undertaken; no comprehensive framework with this level of detail has previously been presented for dynamic capabilities. Our analysis shows where research has made the most progress and where gaps and unresolved tensions remain. Based on this analysis, we propose a forward-looking research agenda that outlines directions for future research.


Schilke, Oliver, & Laura Huang. "Worthy of trust? How brief interpersonal contact affects trust accuracy." Journal of Applied Psychology, received 2nd revise & resubmit. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
Abstract not available as article is currently in progress


Haack, Patrick, William McKinley, Oliver Schilke, & Lynne G. Zucker. “The theory-method gap in legitimacy research: a critical review, synthesis, and directions for future research,” received invitation to submit a full review paper to Journal of Management Studies. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
Abstract not available as article is currently in progress


Yoo, Taeyoung, Oliver Schilke, & Reinhard Bachmann. "Acquiescent defiance: Tuscan wineries’ partial reactivity to the Italian government’s quality regulation system," under journal review. PDF - Abstract


Abstract
Abstract not available as article is currently in progress.


Schilke, Oliver, & Gabriel Rossman. "Moral reactions to the obfuscation of disreputable exchange." PDF - Abstract


Abstract
Abstract not available as article is currently in progress


Schilke, Oliver, & Jacob G. Foster. "The link between uncertainty and alliance network structure." PDF - Abstract


Abstract
Within the last two decades, organizational researchers have increasingly made use of network theory and methods in their analysis of interfirm alliances. They found that the positions of firms in alliance networks significantly influence firm behavior and outcomes (Gulati 1999; Liebeskind, Oliver, Zucker, and Brewer 1996; Powell, Koput, and Smith-Doerr 1996). In line with the embeddedness perspective (Granovetter 1985), it has been theorized and shown that alliance networks provide firms with important benefits such as access to superior information and interorganizational trust (Ahuja 2000; Gulati and Gargiulo 1999; Uzzi 1997). Despite this growing interest in network approaches, little attention has been paid to analyzing systematic variations between different kinds of alliance networks on a macro-level. Extant alliance research has predominantly focused on firms as the unit of analysis, and little is known about systematic differences in alliance network structures and the antecedents to such variation (Powell, Koput, White, and Owen-Smith 2005; Salancik 1995). Notable exceptions include Verspagen and Duysters’ (2004) study of how alliance networks differ between the chemicals and food and electrical equipment industries, Schilling and Phelp’s (2007) analysis of 11 industry-level alliance networks, and Rosenkopf and Schilling’s (2007) work on alliance networks in 32 industries. These studies have greatly enhanced knowledge about how networks vary across different types of industries and how industry characteristics shape alliance decisions. In this research note, we take a different approach to delineating networks, focusing on the type of tie that characterizes the network. That is, whereas recent research concerned with alliance network structure has invariably used the organizational field (i.e., the industry) as the criterion of demarcation, this study differentiates between different interfirm networks depending on the type of alliance. In particular, we follow Das, Sen, and Sengupta’s (1998) argument that an important distinction between different types of alliances refers to the alliance’s functional focus (R&D versus marketing). As such, we examine how a difference in functional focus precipitates different dynamics in alliance formation, leading to distinct macro-level features of R&D versus marketing alliance networks.


Schilke, Oliver, Lynne G. Zucker, & Michael R. Darby. "Repeat collaboration and knowledge creation." PDF - Abstract


Abstract
Abstract not available as article is currently in progress


Recent Research

Sources of distrust: 

Reimann, Martin, Oliver Schilke, & Karen S. Cook. 2017. "Trust is heritable, whereas distrust is not." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
PDF

Trust production: 

Schilke, Oliver, Gunnar Wiedenfels, Malte Brettel, & Lynne G. Zucker. 2017. "Interorganizational trust production contingent on product and performance uncertainty." Socio-Economic Review.
PDF

Interorganizational contracts: 

Schilke, Oliver, & Fabrice Lumineau. Forthcoming. "The double-edged effect of contracts on alliance performance." Journal of Management.
PDF